Showing posts sorted by relevance for query integrated care. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query integrated care. Sort by date Show all posts

March 29, 2012

El camí cap a la integració assistencial

 National Evaluation of the Department of Health’s Integrated Care Pilots

Els anglesos acaben de publicar l'avaluació dels experiments d'integració assistencial. És el document d'interès del moment. A la p.60 trobem una taxonomia necessària en aquests casos:
Integration at system level
Micro-level integration – Integration within an organisation aiming to improve coordination for individual patients.
Meso-level integration – Integration among practitioners working in different organisations, often for benefit of a patient group or defined population.
Macro-level integration – Integration of the purchaser with primary and/or secondary care
(e.g., HMOs such as Kaiser Permanente or the United States Veterans Health Administration).
Integration at organisational level
Organisational integration – Organisations are brought together by mergers, through structural change, through collectives and/or virtually through formal provider networks (i.e., HMOs).
Functional integration – Non-clinical support or back office functions are integrated, such as electronic patient records.
Service integration – Different health and/or social services are integrated, e.g., through the formation of multidisciplinary teams.
Clinical integration – Multiple care processes are integrated into a single or coherent process within and/or across professions, e.g., through the use of shared guidelines or protocols for care of a clinical condition.

Dues qüestions clau, cost i qualitat:
Can the approach to integrated care found in these pilots improve quality of care? We conclude that it can if well led and managed, and tailored to local circumstances and patient needs. Improvements are not likely to be evident in the short term.Can the approaches to integrated care found in these pilots save money? Our conclusions concur with those of Ovretveit (2011)12 – not in the short term and certainly not inevitably.
L'informe és d'interès i és una mostra com després d'un programa pilot cal avaluar les seves aportacions. Cal aprendre allò que funciona i allò que cal millorar. El camí cap a la integració assistencial és llarg i ple de paranys, aprofitem tot el que poguem aprendre dels que ja l'han fet abans que nosaltres.

PS. En Jaume Ventura a El Temps, una explicació pedagògica sobre la crisi econòmica.

June 9, 2015

Integrated care and population health

Population health Systems: Going beyond integrated care

In this blog I have mentioned several times the works by Kindig on population health. If integrated care makes sense, it is because it improves population health. Otherwise we should talk about diferent things.
A new report by the King's Fund sheds some light on several experiences of integrated care. It's worth reading, because you'll see that there is not only one way to achieve the final goal, and the tool -better coordination- has to be suited to the specific setting.

The "recipe":
At a practical level, developing a population health systems perspective requires the following elements as a minimum:
• pooling of data about the population served to identify challenges and needs
• segmentation of the population to enable interventions and support to be targeted appropriately
• pooling of budgets to enable resources to be used flexibly to meet population health needs, at least between health and social care but potentially going much further
• place-based leadership, drawing on skills from different agencies and sectors based on a common vision and strategy
• shared goals for improving health and tackling inequalities based on an analysis of needs and linked to evidence-based interventions
• effective engagement of communities and their assets through third sector organisations and civil society in its different manifestations
• paying for outcomes that require collaboration between different agencies in order to incentivise joint working on population health.

FT on cancer drugs pricing

October 4, 2020

Integrated care as organizational innovation

Innovative Integrated Health And Social Care Programs In Eleven High-Income Countries 

High-income countries face the challenge of providing effective and efficient care to the relatively small proportion of their populations with high health and social care needs. Recent reports suggest that integrated health and social care programs target specific high-needs population segments, coordinate health and social care services to meet their clients’ needs, and engage clients and their caregivers. We identified thirty health and social care programs in eleven high-income countries that delivered care in new ways. We used a structured survey to characterize the strategies and activities used by these programs to identify and recruit clients, coordinate care, and engage clients and caregivers. We found that there were some common features in the implementation of these innovations across the eleven countries and some variation related to local context or the clients served by these programs.

Needs segmentation, Patient coordination and Engagement are the crucial topics. More details inside the article.


June 12, 2020

Primary Care value and physician compensation

Realising the Potential of Primary Health Care

If Primary Care is so important why so few physicians choose it as specialty for the residency programs?. The answer is that there is a difference in perception of value and compensation. Well, this is only the first answer. High value, high effort and low relative compensation compared to other specialties. Governments should care about it and about integrated care is finally organised. This is what OECD report says:
These new models of organisation should be more widely adopted to move away from the traditional and reactive solo-practice model. While there is no one-size-fits-all model of organisation, an integrated model of primary health care often meets the following four characteristics:
 Multi-disciplinary or inter-professional practices with a various mix of primary health care professionals (including GPs or family physicians, registered and advanced nurses, community pharmacists, psychologists, nutritionists, health counsellors, and non-clinical support staff), different models of teamwork, and different target populations (for example as seen in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States) (Socha-Dietrich, 2019[101]).
 Comprehensive health services in the community, (for example in Costa Rica), including disease prevention and health promotion, curative services, rehabilitation and management of chronic diseases. Care co-ordination between health professionals is key to enabling the early detection of disease, reducing the exacerbation of diseases, avoiding duplication of services, and increasing provider and patient satisfaction.
 Population health management, generally based on risk stratification using sophisticated IT systems (for example in Canada and Spain), is implemented to better understand the health and risk profiles of the community and to undertake proactive management of patients’ needs. Patients are stratified to identify opportunities for intervention before the occurrence of any adverse outcomes for individual health status.
 Engagement of patients in shared decision making,


December 19, 2011

Tal faràs, tal trobaràs

The Fragmentation of U.S. Health Care Causes and Solutions

 El disseny organitzatiu dels sistemes de salut és tant "acurat" com ho són les conseqüències que observem. Obtenim allò que ens proposem, i algunes vegades ni tant sols això. Just després de llegir el llibre The Fragmentation of U.S. Health Care. Causes and Solutions n'he quedat novament convençut. L'arrel de la fragmentació assistencial als USA cal trobar-la en el disseny dels incentius, en especial dels que provenen del pagament per acte mèdic. Al capítol 2 en Hyman ho explica bé. Proposa tres vies de sortida: pagar per coordinar, pagar per rendiment, pagar per episodis de malaltia. (pros and cons). Destaco la seva conclusió:
In health care, we get what we pay for—and what we pay for is the provision of specific services—virtually irrespective of whether they are provided efficiently, or even needed. Because payment is conditioned on the laying of hands (or eyes) upon a patient, time spent coordinating care doesn’t create a billing opportunity. When we don’t pay for something, it generally doesn’t get done. Similarly, providing integrated care doesn’t pay better than fragmented care—and in some instances, it pays worse. The results are entirely predictable—and until the incentives created by the payment system are modified, we will continue to get what we’ve already got: a fragmented non-system for delivering care of highly variable quality at high cost.
 Ben segur que direu que no afegeix res que no sapiguem. Cert, és així tant als USA com al sector privat proper, i tots plegats sabent-ho, no es modifica. Potser serà que els costos immediats de canviar són superiors als beneficis incerts futurs. Només cal esperar que la balança s'inclini definitivament i tinc la impressió que cada dia hi som més aprop.

PS. El llibre conté molts capítols d'interès, en especial el d'Alan Enthoven, més endavant en parlaré.

PS. El llibre és el resultat d'una conferència feta a Harvard fa temps. Podeu consultar-ne els papers i presentacions. I fins i tot el primer capítol del llibre.

PS. en Robert Skidelky a LV. Del tot encertat.

PS. Els de WSJ envien un reporter de Nova York a Barcelona i escriu Christmas, and Caganers, in Catalonia  

Sixeart, ho trobareu a la galeria N2

December 22, 2020

Five levels of care integration

 The importance of understanding and measuring health system structural, functional, and clinical integration

A helpful framework on integrated care from the Health Services Research article:

The framework focuses on how systems are structured and governed, what people who work in the system believe and how they behave, and activities intended to integrate patient care into a single coordinated process within the system. We chose this model because, while there are many different ways to characterize health systems, we wanted to focus on those characteristics that might prove to be meaningful with regard to performance differences.

Hypothetical relationships are depicted in the model using arrows that move from left to right. The five types of integration depicted in the model (structural, functional, normative, interpersonal and process integration) are hypothesized to effect intermediate and ultimate outcomes. From Singer SJ, Kerrissey M, Friedberg M, Phillips R. A Comprehensive Theory of Integration. Med Care Res Rev. 2020;77(2):204, Sage Publications, Inc. 

  • Structural integration (physical, operational, financial, or legal ties among operating units within a system)
  • Functional integration (formal, written policies, and protocols for activities that coordinate and support accountability and decision making among operating units)
  • Process (or clinical) integration (actions or activities intended to integrate patient care across people, functions, activities, and operating units within the system). In our discussion, we refer to this as clinical integration.

Structural and functional integration are under the direct control of system executives. Our intent was to understand the kinds of strategic decisions they were making, why they made them, and how they saw their decisions affecting their goals for their systems. Understanding the organizations that make up the systems and the extent to which systems are structurally and functionally integrated is a vital starting point for understanding whether process/clinical integration is happening within systems, how it is happening, or indeed whether it is even possible.

Two additional types of integration—normative and interpersonal. 

Normative integration refers to sharing a common culture; interpersonal integration refers to collaboration or teamwork.

March 2, 2016

Efficient health systems

The five principles behind the world’s most efficient health systems

I was reading The Guardian this morning and I found this article. Forget for a while if there are five principles or more, its an op-ed. These are the key principles:
  1. Integrated care
  2. Hospitals as Health Systems
  3. Standardise and  simplify
  4. Take social care seriously
  5. Payer power
You may agree or not, but it is worth checking it out.

PS. If you want to know our research contributions on integrated care, I suggest you attend this workshop.

September 2, 2016

Predictive modeling in health care (2)

Analysing the Costs of Integrated Care: A Case on Model Selection for Chronic Care Purposes

How do you want to manage, with a rearview mirror or just looking forward? Big data allows to look forward with better precision. The uncertainty about the disease and about the cost of care is large when you enter in hospital from an emergency department. But, after the diagnosis (morbidity), could we estimate how much could cost an episode?. If so, then we could compare the expected cost and the observed cost on a continous process.
Right now this is possible. Check this article that we have just published and you'll understand that costs of different services according to morbidity can be reckoned and introduced in health management. This analysis goes beyong our former article, much more general. So, what are we waiting for? Big data is knocking at the door of health care management, predictive modeling is the tool.

Amazing concert by Caravan Palace in Sant Feliu de Guixols three weeks ago.

September 16, 2013

Quo vaditis?

Resource allocation in health care is a nightmare for any regulator. Since competitive prices are unavailable, payment systems have to be designed in order to achieve a greater efficiency, better quality and access. Two decades ago a chapter in a book on that topic summarized the knowledge and potential applications. The title was: Hospital Groups and Case-Mix Measurement for Resource Allocation and Payment, and the authors: Pere Ibern, James C. Vertrees, Kenneth G. Manton,Max A. Woodbury. This was the result of my stay as a visiting researcher at Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies. I had the unique opportunity to share knowledge with extraordinarily talented people.
For many years, things moved smoothly. A summary of the state of the art in 2007 is provided in a chapter of this book (p.259).
After twenty years, things have changed, quo vaditis payment systems?. Right now we focus on incentives for integrated care, and accordingly payment systems have to follow a different path. Bundled care and episode of care, these are the crucial topics right now.
However, regulator's inertia and risk avoidance are the greatest constraints for change. It is difficult to leave the confort zone. Although we know that current payment systems require a new design, decisions are being delayed. The latest words of Seamus Heaney, recently passed away, fit perfectly as a key message: Noli timere, don't fear.

February 15, 2017

A prescription for “high-need, high-cost” patients

David Blumenthal presented at the recent  OECD health conference the Commonwealth Fund report: Designing a High-Performing Health Care System for Patients with Complex Needs: Ten Recommendations for Policymakers
These are the recommendations:

1. Make care coordination a high priority for patients with complex needs
2. Identify patients at greatest need of proactive, coordinated care
3. Train more primary care physicians and geriatricians
4. Improve communication between providers, e.g. integrated clinical records
5. Engage patients in decisions about their care
6. Provide better support for carers
7. Redesign funding mechanisms for patients with complex needs
8. Integrate health and social care, and physical and mental healthcare
9. Engage clinicians in change, train and support clinical leaders
10.Learn from experience; scale up successful projects

Once again, the issue is not about what, but about how, according to the specific setting. This is the reason why change implies modify incentives and coordination mechanisms. This is the hardest part, with cost and benefits uneven distributed over time and people. And this is the reason why recommendations fail so often in its implementation.

April 10, 2021

On value (once again)

 From value for money to value-based health services: a twenty-first century shift

VBHS cannot be achieved without reorienting existing fragmented models of care towards one that rests on a strong primary health care foundation (19) with an integrated community care component and underpinned by the principle of people coproducing health. This may encompass a shift from inpatient to outpatient and ambulatory care, where appropriate. It requires investment in holistic and comprehensive care, including health promotion and prevention strategies that support people’s health and well-being (20). It further requires effective referral systems, flexible and multidisciplinary provider networks, and participatory monitoring and evaluation strategies.

Nothing new. 

Joaquim Mir

March 30, 2012

El camí cap a la integració assistencial (2)

Primary Care and Public Health: Promoting Integration to Improve Population Health

Des de l'altra banda de l'Atlàntic, l'IOM ens ofereix més elements sobre la integració assistencial, aquesta vegada enfocant l'atenció primària i la salut pública. L'informe va enfocat a com millorar la salut poblacional:
Improving population health will require activities in three domains: (1) efforts to address social and environmental conditions that are the primary determinants of health, (2) health care services directed to individuals, and (3) public health activities operating at the population level to address health behaviors and exposures. There is abundant evidence for the benefit and value of activities in each of these domains for achieving the aim of better and more equitable population health
Dins hi trobareu case studies, de ciutats com Durham, que conec prou bé, o San Francisco, que també, ateses les destacades universitats que tenen en tema salut. Però quan ho llegeixo m'entra un cert dubte. Semblaria que els casos van per una banda i la realitat per una altra. I és que la integració té sentit quan més ampli és el seu impacte, si s'oblida de l'atenció especialitzada aleshores perd força. Allò que deiem ahir, un llarg camí per endavant.

PS. El dia 1 de maig toca anar a King's Fund:International Integrated Care Summit

PS. Qui et pot tornar 2 anys de la teva vida passats injustament a la presó?. Llegiu aquest relat. Mentrestant ahir veia delinqüents campant per la ciutat impunement.

 I com que l'exposició de Joan Miró, "L'escala de l'evasió" ja s'ha acabat, us resta l'oportunitat de veure escultures seves a Yorkshire, com aquesta que encapçalava el comentari de FT de fa uns dies.

January 29, 2013

On predictive modeling

A better understanding of population morbidity allows to predict how such population will evolve. Currently there is an increasing interest on chronic care and a specific program has been set up. The potential tools available to define chronic populations have been presented and you can check them in this document.Although we do need more details, it is a first step in the right direction. However, I'm not so sure about the split of chronic care from integrated care. Why now?

November 3, 2015

Physicians' quality: incentives and information

In the USA, the Affordable Care Act requires the federal government to post information about physician performance and quality of care on a public website. The recent experience of public and private initiatives has been reviewed in a Health Affairs Brief. If you want to know the implications and details on how to make information accessible for citizens, this is a key document to read.
• By 2019 doctors who treat Medicare beneficiaries must choose between two options—enroll in a program called the merit-based incentive payment system or sign up to be part of an alternative payment model.
• The merit-based incentive payment system will adapt and combine multiple programs —PQRS, the EHR meaningful-use program, and the value-based payment modifier initiative—into one.
• Doctors opting for the merit-based incentive payment system must report quality-of-care measures to CMS. How is to be determined, but CMS likely will use an upgraded PQRS reporting system.
• Physicians will be scored on four components of care: quality (30 percent); resource
use (30 percent); meaningful use of EHRs (25 percent); and practice improvement  activities (15 percent).
• Physicians choosing the alternative payment model path would have to be part of an integrated health system, join an ACO.
Sounds interesting. Incentives and information altogether, a hint for other health insurance markets on what to do about it.

May 17, 2019

Opioid epidemic and the need for urgent measures

Addressing Problematic Opioid Use in OECD Countries

Some months ago I explained my concerns about opioid epidemic. I said that the problem is closer than most people think. In the last five years, there has been a 45% growth in publicly funded opioid prescription  in our country. Now OCDE presents the current situation in a report that highlights where we are and what can be done. The key messages are these ones:
  • Better Prescribing: Doctors can improve their prescribing practices, for instance, through evidence-based clinical guidelines (e.g. for opioid prescription, for adequate medication-assisted therapy for OUD patients), prescribers training, surveillance of opioid prescriptions, and regulation of marketing and financial relationships with opioid manufacturers. In addition, patients and the general public can also benefit from clear educational materials and awareness interventions to enhance their opioid-related literacy and reduce stigma.
  • Better care: Including the expansion of coverage for long-term medication-assisted therapy (e.g. methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone) coupled with specialised services for infectious diseases management (e.g. HIV, hepatitis) and psychosocial interventions. Some countries have implemented interventions such as the availability of overdose reversal medications for all first responders, needle and syringe programmes, and medically supervised consumption centres.Quality of care must be improved and measured. 
  • Better approach: There can be better coordination across the health, social and criminal justice systems. Governments can consider setting up of coordinated networks among the three sectors aiming to facilitate access to integrated services for people with OUD. In addition to health services, social interventions around housing and employment support, and law enforcement uptake of a public health approach are central.
  • Better knowledge and research: Including the use of big data and impact evaluations to generate new information from different sources along with the application of advanced analytics. In addition, quality of care measurement should be enhanced in areas such as opioid prescription, OUD health care services, and patient reported indicators (e.g. PROMs, PREMs). Research and development is needed in key areas such as new pain management modalities and OUD treatments.

October 20, 2011

Preguntar allò que no se sap

The Evidence Base for Integrated Care slidepack

Quan un govern no sap com afrontar un problema el millor que pot fer és preguntar. Això és el que ha fet el Departament de Salut britànic a la Kings Fund i al Nuffield Trust. El projecte encomanat ha de donar resposta a com estruturar l'atenció integrada en el futur per al NHS. Ho seguirem amb atenció, mentrestant tenim aquesta presentació.
Un exemple també interessant a seguir és el projecte de High Value Care project. Però aquest no tindrà un impacte governamental equivalent, però metodològicament promet.

February 25, 2013

The greater good vs shopping

Engaged Patients Will Need Comparative Physician-Level Quality Data And Information About Their Out-Of-Pocket Costs

Access to quality and cost information for citizens is increasing in certain environments. Right now you can find for example the prevalence of nosocomial infection in acute care hospitals in Catalonia with a simple click (p.69). You can assess in advance the probability of being infected during your hospital stay and if you check the indicator you'll find wide variations. Unfortunately this information is not structured to take decisions.
A recent paper in HA groups two potential approaches, information for greater good vs. information for shopping.
The health care quality and cost reporting programs that fall under the “transparency for the greater good” model tend to be nonprofit and government initiatives focused on improving quality and efficiency, engaging consumers, and increasing awareness of variation in quality and cost. In contrast, the programs that fall under the “one-stop shopping” model tend to be private-sector initiatives that aim to provide personalized, integrated information on cost and quality to support consumers’ decision making regarding care providers and services.
Personnally, I'm not so convinced about the dissemination and use of such information to patients. I'm not so sure about the role of choice in general. I suggest you have a look at the book the Paradox of choice before entering into a dubious land. Anyway, I'm in favour for greater transparency, and initiatives like Central de Resultats are a good example, but I remain uncertain about its usefulness for " doctor shopping".

I should go to Viladecans exhibition on Espriu

November 11, 2011

El lent camí

Towards integrated care in Trafford

Quan algú em pregunta sobre el canvi organitzatiu necessari en la provisió dels serveis de salut, sempre acabo referint-me d'una o altra manera a l'assistència sanitària integrada, és a dir aquella que és capaç d'establir formes de coordinació funcional i clínica conjuntes entre tots el participants en el procés de servei. Al Regne Unit aquest tema també està sobre la taula. Acaba de sortir un informe que mostra l'experiència de Trafford, al BMJ trobareu la notícia. El missatge és de que es tracta d'un camí lent. Jo hi afegiria que la velocitat depèn dels incentius i enfoc dels que hi participen. En qualsevol cas, si Trafford és el projecte de referència a UK, hauríem de tenir-ne un nosaltres. Jo crec que sense massa esforç podem identificar-ne algun de proper i aprendre'n moltes coses. Altres fan menys i ho expliquen més.

PS. Coincideixo al 100% amb en Jordi Barbeta avui a LV. Lectura recomanada.

May 22, 2012

El valor de les proves diagnòstiques

Can and Should Value Based Pricing Be Applied to Molecular Diagnostics?

Cal dir que la distància entre preu i valor en cada mercat és ben diferent. Penseu per un moment en una prova diagnòstica. La informació que ofereix pot capgirar el curs de la malaltia, i fins i tot assegurar la supervivència. El preu que en paguem s'acosta previsiblement més al cost que al valor que representa.
Fa poc que els de l'Office of Health Economics han publicat un article que ens ofereix una perspectiva en aquest sentit.
El resum:
Current pricing and reimbursement systems for diagnostics are not efficient. Prices for diagnostics often are driven by administrative practice and expected production cost. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a value based pricing (VBP) framework that is being used to ensure efficient use and price of medicines also could be applied to diagnostics. Diagnostics not only facilitate health gain and cost savings, but also provide information to inform patients’ decisions on interventions and their future “behaviours”. For value assessment processes, we recommend a two-part approach. Companion diagnostics introduced at the launch of the drug should be assessed through new drug assessment processes considering a broad range of value elements and a balanced analysis of diagnostic impacts. A separate diagnostic-dedicated committee using VBP principles should review other diagnostics lying outside the companion diagnostics-and-drug “at-launch” situation.
A data d'avui em costa assenyalar quin és el mecanisme de preus òptim per a les proves de laboratori, ni sé si existeix com a tal un mercat que permeti aquesta formació de preus. En absència de mercat competitiu, aleshores cal pensar més aviat en mecanismes d'assignació adhoc, subhastes i preus de transferència interns. Per tant el que diuen a l'article cal considerar-ho com una primera aportació. Ells mateixos assenyalen que no resoldran teòricament l'aportació de valor en la combinació diagnòstic-teràpia. I per aquest motiu que cal seguir refinant l'anàlisi.

PS. Llegeixo a les comunicacions AES, frases com aquesta:  "La introducción de tests genéticos en el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer de mama es una opción eficiente". O aquesta altra: "El extra coste del test genético se ve compensado con ahorros potenciales de la reducción de eventos coronarios en pacientes
de alto riesgo no identificados con el método estándar". I només em pregunto sobre el que significa realment,  si té sentit i res més, i aquí ho deixo.

PS. Un gran record per un dels grans emprenedors del país: Josep Maria Rubiralta. va saber situar la seva empresa entre les 10 més grans del món en diagnòstic. El seu llegat ens ensenya que la capacitat d'innovació i adaptació esdevenen la clau de l'èxit.

PS. Quan en un país hi ha un jutge que per 60.000 euros deixa anar a tres presos i no passa res, i quan en un país el president del tribunal suprem utilitza fons públics per al seu ús de cap de setmana i es considera que no hi ha intenció d'ús inapropiat, és una confirmació de la inseguretat jurídica de la que n'he parlat en diverses ocasions.

PS. A la King's Fund trobareu informació sobre com va anar l'International Integrated Care Summit.

PS. Avui és el dia que ens informen que l'any que ve també hi haurà recessió, i fins quan?