19 de gener 2021

Clinical utility of genomic sequencing

 Clinical utility of genomic sequencing: a measurement toolkit

From Genomic Medicine:

For a diagnostic test such as WGS (whole genome sequencing) to be accepted into practice, commissioned in a health system, or receive coverage and reimbursement through health insurance, evidence of clinical utility and cost-effectiveness is generally required. Unlike prospective clinical research where the ‘effectiveness’ of an intervention can be easily tied to a predefined health outcome, the concept of clinical utility in genetic medicine is rarely uniformly defined nor necessarily directly tied to a specific health outcome. As such, generating and evaluating evidence of clinical utility is complex. The challenge in defining clinical utility today is compounded by the extraordinary heterogeneity of rare diseases, as well as the polygenic nature of more common conditions for which WGS is expected to be relevant. In this paper, we aim to extend earlier conceptualizations of clinical utility as applied to the diagnostic use of WGS and suggest that this framework not only be used as a tool for evidence review

 The application of this model to WGS includes six levels of efficacy: technical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy efficacy, diagnostic thinking efficacy, therapeutic efficacy, patient outcome efficacy, and societal efficacy (Table 1, Fig. 1). The model is hierarchical; achieving a given level of efficacy is often but not always contingent upon a demonstration of efficacy at the preceding level. As described in Fig. 1, levels 1–3 are necessarily contingent but beyond level 3, a genetic test can achieve therapeutic, patient outcome, and/or societal impact in ways that are contingent upon one another or independent of one another. We retain the levels of technical and diagnostic accuracy efficacy (i.e., levels 1 and 2) as essential starting points in our guiding framework as they are fundamental precursors to achieving clinical utility. However, since these laboratory-based components of efficacy are well-debated and described in the WGS literature and in recent guidelines published by members of our group27, we focus here on four levels of the efficacy model (i.e., levels 3–6) that align most directly with a broad definition of clinical utility and extend beyond laboratory-based components of efficacy. In emphasizing these four levels of efficacy as components of clinical utility, our intent is to encourage the use of a broad set of health and non-health-related indicators of value to bolster the state of evidence in this area, rather than to convey that all aspects of clinical utility need to be achieved for WGS adoption and reimbursement.