Tuesday, October 18, 2011

La mesura del benestar


How's life? Measuring well-being

Hem passat tants anys parlant que el PIB no ho recull tot i ara que surt una alternativa li dediquem poca atenció. Ha estat novament l'OCDE qui ha fet l'esforç per a 34 països per tal de determinar el benestar relatiu de la població. Ho trobareu a: How's life? Measuring well-being. De les moltes dimensions, adjunto la relativa a salut aquí sota. La satisfacció amb la vida estaria al 6,2 mentre que a l'OCDE es troba al 6,7 i quan mires algunes dimensions en particular hi ha sorpreses preocupants. Resulta que quan disposàvem només del PIB resultava fàcil pensar unidimensionalment i en canvi quan n'hi ha moltes cal posar un pes a cadascuna, i això depèn de les preferències individuals. Per tant només hi ha una opció possible, fer servir l'eina interactiva i que cadascú es calculi el seu benestar relatiu (l'agregació de preferències és tasca complicada).

Most OECD countries have enjoyed large gains in life expectancy over the past decades, thanks to improvements in living conditions, public health interventions and progress in medical care. In 2008, life expectancy at birth in Spain stood at 81.2 years, two years above the OECD average of 79 years.
Higher life expectancy is generally associated with higher healthcare spending per person, although many other factors have an impact on life expectancy (such as living standards, lifestyles, education and environmental factors). Total health spending accounted for 9.0% of GDP in Spain in 2008, which is equal to the average of OECD countries. In 2008, health spending as a share of GDP was the highest in the United States (which spent 16.0% of its GDP on health), followed by France (11.2%), Switzerland (10.7%), and Germany and Austria (both 10.5%). Spain ranks below the OECD average in terms of health spending per person, with spending of 2,902 USD in 2008, compared with an OECD average of 3,060 USD. Between 2000 and 2008, health spending per person in Spain increased, in real terms, by 4.7 % per year on average, a growth rate higher than the average in OECD countries (4.2%).
Throughout the OECD, tobacco consumption and excessive weight gain remain two important risk factors for many chronic diseases.
Spain has achieved progress in reducing tobacco consumption, with current rates of daily smokers among adults standing at 26.4% in 2006, down from 41% in 1985. However, smoking rates in Spain still remain higher than the OECD average of 23.3% in 2008. Sweden, the United States and Australia provide examples of countries that have achieved remarkable success in reducing tobacco consumption, with current smoking rates among adults below 17%.
Adult obesity rates in Spain are higher than the OECD average, but child rates are amongst the highest in the OECD. Two out of 3 men are overweight and 1 in 6 people are obese in Spain. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. The proportion of adults who are overweight is projected by the OECD to rise a further 10% during the next 10 years. Obesity’s growing prevalence foreshadows increases in the occurrence of health problems (such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and asthma), and higher health care costs in the future.
When asked, "How is your health in general?", 70% of people in Spain reported to be in good health, close to the OECD average of 69%. Despite the subjective nature of this question, the answers have been found to be a good predictor of people’s future health care use.
PS. Per aquells que associen desigualtat social amb menys satisfacció en la vida, els convé veure aquest post i el seu argument trontollarà una mica més.

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